Student Thoughts

Columbus was a Hero

by Christi

Christopher Columbus was a man that I can describe as high standards
and much courage. In 1492 he founded America. Others say someone else could
have found it later, but then we wouldn't have the great technology we
do now. Although Columbus was only wanting to go to Asia, he had great
courage to even try another route. He was daring and adventurous. Some actions
that historians have pointed out sound really bad now, but if it happened
five hundred years ago, maybe the people didn't know better. Historians did
not live back then, so they really do not know what happened. Columbus was
also a very religious man. He taught the Indians the religion as a missionary
and based his life on God. Columbus was also said to be a kind man.
"Columbus was genuine and sincere..."(Morison) to his fellow beings. In
my eyes I see Columbus as a man "...more stupendous than those which Heaven
has permitted..." (Winsor) no matter what anyone says.

by J.P.
My overall feeling on Columbus is that he was a hero. I do believe,
though, that he made some unfortunate mistakes. In the readings there were great and
horrible things about Columbus, but I do not think that he was as bad or as good to the extremes represented by these authors.As in "Hero", Prescott mentioned, "More Stupendous than any other mortal." Saying that he was a perfect angel, then there is the other side in "Pitiable Man", the author mentions "His Lord was one in whose name it was convenient to practice enormities." [Saying that Columbus only believed in God when it was convenient to, always to impress someone.] So I am more drawn to see Columbus as a hero, because Columbus did what he did to get things done. I do not think Columbus did these things because he was sacrilegious, but instead he had no choice.
People said Columbus cut the ears off the Natives just to show power and fun; I don't believe this. No one is that sick. Even if he [ meaning if it was him or mainly his awful crew did things when he was away in Spain] did this, Columbus might have said a prayer before he did the cutting. The point is we don't know exactly what Columbus did, so we really can't judge him.
When you think about it, the discovery of America may have led to the
beginning of slavery. Now you could blame the whole thing on him, or you could
think for a second, "What if Columbus hadn't brought back the Natives?" I
think that someone else would have done it anyway, so I really wouldn't blame him. Also he thought it as an extra reward. If he brought back more "gifts", Columbus would make a better impression and receive more recognition.
It is difficult to judge Columbus in that life was a lot different back
500 years ago than it is now. Some of what he did might have been move acceptable
during his time. If someone were to do these things in the present time, acting in such a manor would be unacceptable. In his time Columbus was definitely a true hero, so I
would consider him a hero today.


by Felipe

Most people have believed Christopher Columbus to be a hero,
but from others point view, this so-called hero, is not much of a hero after

This man has tortured many innocent people, such as cutting off their
ears and the tips of their noses. He forced the Indians to believe in
Catholicism; and if they didn't, they would be enslaved. And even
though they said they were Catholic, they would probably become slaves anyway.
Columbus was not generous and always exaggerated and lied throughout his whole life.

Although Columbus was not perfect, he did have some good points.
Christopher Columbus was considered a great Catholic and had great
visions. He also had plenty of sea knowledge, courage, and had a lot
of planning.

Columbus was actually just a normal guy. Yes, he had some bad points,
but he also had good points. You can't just say that he was a bad
person, just the same as you can't say he was a great person. Columbus
was just a normal guy who wanted gold. Everything that was mentioned
before about Columbus being a hero and Columbus being pitiable, were
all facts. But the things that we say today were bad and pitiable, weren't
so bad at the time they were committed. Very sad things happen, but if
you actually take some time to think about it, you will realize that
every little thing that occurs in history, effects the future. Whether
it was one Indian that was mutilated instead of one; or if it was only
1493 Columbus sailed to find the gold. Whatever it is, it would all
make a difference in the long run. Many people have suffered in history
to get the world we have today. And maybe if those people had not
suffered, the world could have become totally different. I believe
that even with all the crisis the world is going through at the moment, with
wars, hunger, homeless, etc. Columbus is not a hero, he’s not a zero,
but if it wasn’t for him, this world would be very different.

Columbus was a Pitiable Man:

by Devina

Many people portray Columbus as a hero because he discovered America.
However, there are many things that cause some to think otherwise.
Columbus was a pitiable man because he was cruel to the Native
Americans, he was not as religious as people thought he was, and he had
psychological problems.
Columbus treated the Natives very poorly. He forced them to become
Catholics, he enslaved them, and he slashed off their ears and noses.
It is not right to force someone to believe in something they do not want
to accept and turn that person into a slave. If a person works for
someone, that individual should be paid for the work he or she did.
Columbus also made the Natives suffer a lot by indirectly setting up
the encomienda system. The encomienda system caused the Native Americans to
be malnourished and have many diseases, because they were too busy
working for the colonists to be able to take care of themselves. These
acts of cruelty should not have happened.
People thought that Columbus was a very religious man, but he was not
as pious as they thought. Columbus prayed and mentioned the name of God
repeatedly in order to impress Queen Isabella. He went against three of
the ten commandments. Columbus killed many Native Americans and stole
from them, and he had an illegitimate son through the adultery he
“The mental hallucinations of Columbus, so patient in his last years,
were not beyond recognition at a much earlier age.” This quote tells us
that Columbus had a mental illness throughout his life. “He talked a
great deal about making converts of the poor souls, while the very
which he had of them prompted him to consign them to the slave-mart,
just as if the first step to Christianize was the step which unmans.”
In view of of all these reasons, Columbus should be seen as a pitiable
man and not a hero.

by Katie

Columbus killed many Native Americans when he discovered the New
World. He came right over to the islands of the Bahamas, claimed the
land, AND its people. He forced everyone to become a Catholic, or if
they refused, they would be put to death. The Native Americans didn’t
exactly have a god, they believed in Nature, and to treat it with
respect. When Columbus came to the island, he kept on describing their
bodies being well fit in his diary, thinking they would make great
slaves. Before the people of the island called Tainos knew that they
were going to enslaved and tortured, they were very kind to the
colonists. The Tainos offered gold, food and water. They would do and
give whatever Columbus wanted, so they were taken for granted. All the
people with high technology at the time thought that they had the right
to claim people with low technology. The Tainos did had technology of
their own. They had trade, in which they traded shells, salt and other
goods with neighbors on nearby islands.

When Columbus sailed back to Spain, he took forty eight captives with him. Also when Columbus came back, he brought 1,500 colonists! He then built a town named Isabel.
There, he left his brother Bartholomeus in charge. The colonists all
depended too much on the Native Americans for food and other things so
the Indians revolted. I would even do that if I had to work for
someone who claimed that I HAD to work for them without pay. Unfortunately, a
law was passed so each colonist could have a couple of Native Americans
work for them. There are some good things about Columbus, but they
definitely don't add up to how cruel he had been.



Columbus Was Human:

by Stephen

Christopher Columbus was the average guy. Now first of all, I am
judging him on today’s standards because I don’t really know what was
okay back 500 years ago. Columbus broke three major commandments, now
that’s not great but then again that’s better than what some people
have done. Columbus was accused of mutilating humans but I think more
that he couldn’t speak the Indians language so he had to do something
to mean business. William H. Prescott wrote a passage in "reference to
his [Columbus’s] illegitimate son" (26 Viewpoint 2). Columbus was just
being like some others in present day history compelled to do this.
Also, he lied to his crew members about how far they had actually gone.
Once again, who hasn’t lied-big or small-in their life before? Finally,
some say that North America and South America would not be around if
Columbus didn’t "run" into them. Eventually some other explorer would
have decided to sail around the other way of the world and discovered
the Americas. In conclusion, Columbus wasn’t the best human ever but he
wasn’t the worst so he was like the general population.

by Kunal

In my opinion Christopher Columbus was both a heroic and pitiable man.
The fact that Columbus discovered America makes him a hero because it
take drive and initiative to even try something different in the first
place. One of the reasons that make Columbus a pitiable man was that
he cruelly killed and mutilated many Native Americans. "The first vicar
apostolic sent to teach the faith in Santo Domingo returned to Spain,
no longer able to remain, powerless, in sight of the cruelties practiced
by Columbus.", author Justin Winsor describes. I don't believe there is
one valid reason one could give for taking the life of another human. In
addition he also broke some of the most important Christian
Commandments, such as committing adultery and stealing. As one can
observe, Columbus had both superior and sinful qualities. It is
extremely difficult for someone in this day and age to judge Columbus
because they never lived during Columbus’s era. So many customs and
beliefs develop over the years that our conception of people’s actions
is altered as time passes by. One fact I do know is that Columbus most
likely achieved one of his goals, because five hundred years after his
discovery he is still being talked and written about.

The Northern Colonies:

by Kristi

New England included Massachusets, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and
Conneticut. Massachusets was made up of Puritans. The Puritans had been
annoying the government in England, so the British government sent them
to America. The Puritan's wanted to start a perfect world for God. They
wanted everyone to model their societies after theirs. Rhode Island was
started by a woman named Anne Hutchinson. She didn't believe in
government and she became a Jehovah's witness. She eventually moved to
Long Island and was supposedly killed by Indians. Some people moved to
Connecticut because the laws and rules in Massachusets were too strict.
New Hampshire was started by some people who were kicked out of
Massachusets because they criticized Puritan teaching.


by Rob

Massachusetts: Massachusetts was founded by the Pilgrims who landed on
Plymouth Rock in 1620. They then established the Massachusetts Bay
Colony. Massachusetts has been very active in manufacturing and
agriculture. It is the 45th largest state and is the sixth state,
ratifying the constitution on February 6th, 1788.

Rhode Island:Rhode Island was founded in 1636 by Roger Williamson.
Williamson was banished from Massachusetts because he disagreed with
Puritan Government of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Rhode Island was
set up as a farming stare, and is the smallest state in the US. It is
the 13 state. It ratified the constitution on May 29th, 1790.

Connecticut:Connecticut was founded by an Englishman in 1634, while he
was sailing up the mouth of the Connecticut river. Connecticut has
developed into a rich industrial state, even though it is a large
exporter of tobacco, apples, and potatoes. It is the 48th largest
state, and the fifth state overall, ratifying the constitution on
January 9th, 1788.

New Hampshire:New Hampshire was founded by John Madison who named it
after his hometown of Hampshire, England. New Hampshire is the most
mountainous of the New England states. It is the 44th largest state,
and the ninth state overall, ratifying the constitution on June 21,

Southern Colonies Description

by Stephen

The southern colonies were five states located in the southern U.S. These
colonies were Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia.
North and South Carolina were one colony until they split up. These colonies
promoted the seperation of church and state. They developed a strong plantation
economy. Maryland was founded in 1634 for religous freedom for Catholics. First it
was a proprietary colony, then a royal colony, and then back to a proprietary
colony. Virginia was founded in 1607 to find gold and for the land. It started out as a
charter, but fell on hard times and became a royal colony. North and South Carolina
were founded for land to be used for plantations and farms. First they were run by a
proprietor but then became a royal charter. North and South Carolina were split by
the British when it was a royal charter because the colony was too big. Finally
Georgia was a colony there for a buffer zone between the Spanish and South
Carolina and debtors were given a fresh, new start there. First it was a proprietary
colony but as most of them became a royal charter. The southern colonies would
face views and people that thought that slavery was unfair.

by Lindsay

The states in the southern colonies included, Maryland, Virginia, North
Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. The southern area has vast plains
of sandy soil, mostly located on rolling hills in danger of erosion because of
heavy rains and floods which plague the region. The southen colonies
were not very rich and they didn't have a big population but they had a lot of


Maryland was founded in 1634 because of religous freedom for catholics.
Maryland started out using the proprietary form of government but then
switched to Royal but then back to proprietary.


Virgina was founded in 1607 only for people who seeked land and gold.
Virgina started out being a harter than in 1624 became a royal colony.

North and South Carolina:

North and South Carolina were founded in 1650 to get fich and to find
land and trade. Like a lot of the colonies, they started out as proprietory and
then became royal.


Georgia was founded in 1733 for people who had done something wrong in
England and wanted a frensh start in America. They started out as a proprietory
colony and then became a royal colony.

Articles of Confederation of Disunia

by Emily

According to the 'Articles of Confederation', the state may not make
a treaty or enter into alliance with either a foreign nation or another
state within this confederation. They may not levy tariffs on foreign
nations when such tariffs conflict with tariffs of the Confederate
States of Disunia. The state may not refuse to maintain a trained and
equipped state army as part of the army of Disunia- as stipulated by
Congress. The state also may not maintain and equip a state army beyond
those limitations stipulated by Congress. They may not engage in war
without the consent of Congress and refuse to abide by the
determinations of Congress. The state also may not secede from this
Confederation, this union of the states being perpetual.
The Congress has lots of powers. They are allowed to declare war and
to send and receive ambassadors. They can enter into treaties and
alliances with foreign powers. They may decide controversies between
the states when such controversies are appealed to Congress. They may
also issue money and raise a Disunian army from the state armies in
proportion to the number of citizens in each state. The last think
Congress can do is to appoint a Committee of the States.
Some weaknesses is that Congress rates on good of state, not
An example would be if one state is rich then all of the other states
don't like the state that is the richest because they have most of the
money. Another weakness is that the armies aren't strong enough to
fight wars. This could affect the country because they would loose all
of the wars. Another weakness is the leader of Congress is the leader
of the country. The affect would be that by the time he figured out a
job, he was gone. Another weakness is tariffs caused problems with
trade. An example of this would be that if a state just wanted to
the other state needs to pay tariff and the other state that just
to trade wouldn't have equal amounts of both kinds of money.
Things that they could change to make the 'Articles of
fair, would be to change the Congress's power- to set a limit on
tariffs. Another thing that they could change would be to create a law
that forces other states to help other states.

Shay's Rebellion

by Katie

In Massachusetts, in the year 1786, a group of farmers rebelled. The
farmers couldn't pay their debts, and were unhappy with the high taxes.

They would either go to jail, or become slaves. Since neither one of
these ideas sounded very good to them, they decided to prevent court
from starting. Eventually they were ordered to leave, with bounty put
on their head. The men remembered fighting from the war, and decided
to fight for their rights. Shay and 1,200 farmers set out to Springfield,
Massachusetts. They intended to seize the federal arsenal, but were
stopped by the militia. This is remembered as an important event in
history. The result of this event was that it led to calls for a
stronger central government.

by Rachel

Shays Rebellion happened in the late 1700s. The people who rebeled
were farmers, they were lead by a man named Daniel Shay. The reason they
rebeled was because they were angery at the United State govertment for
placing high taxes on farm land. As part of their protest they shot down
auctions where people were auctioning of farm tools and farm land taken
from the farmers in dept. They also stopped tax collecters from getting
farmland or property from farmers who could not pay the taxes. Those are
some things they did along with trying to steal federal arsenal. The
rebellion ended when Washington sent the malitia to control the

by Adrienne

Shay's Rebellion was when farmers who couldn't pay off debts were either
sent to jail of sold into slavery. In autumn of 1786 in Massachusetts,
farmers prevented the courts from starting. The mob of farmers were
ordered to leave and they had a bounty put on their heads. The men
remembered the war, but they had only shovels and pitchforks for weapons.
They tried to get arsenal (bullets and guns) to use. Massachusetts
asked Connecticut for help, but there was no aid. Then, the militia and some
college students helped, and the mob fled to the hills They were hunted
like animals and were cold and hungry. They were forced to surrender
because of their weakened condition. The fourteen leaders were
sentenced to death, but later pardoned.

The Constitutional Convention

by Alex

Delegates started arriving at Philadelphia, by boat, by land, they arrived by
anything. They kept arriving for twelve days. After all the delegates were there
it all got started.

It was May 14, 1787 all the state delegates had arrived except for Maryland.
Once they were all in the meeting place they closed doors, shut windows and
locked themselves in with the heat and humidity. They did this for a few
reasons, so it was easier to debate, privately solved and no ordinary citizens to
find out until it was done. Washington, the leader of the Congress had been
very watchful with misplaced papers, so when he found a paper on the floor he
got very upset and made a speech to all the delegates. The delegates were both
young old and all experienced in these kind of matters. Jefferson, Adams and
Henry did not show up because they were in Paris.

The first step in the debate was to just get rid of the Articles of
Confederation, so that the relationships of the states and the government could
improve. The second step was to come up with a plan. James Madison solved
that and came up with the Virginia Plan, later on they called him the "Father of
the Constitution". He was rich, wimpy, but very smart. This plan would give
more power to the central government and come up with the constitution, so
that the nation could improve. He also came up with federalism which meant
division of power between central government and the states. They could also
overturn laws, tax states and attack states at the strong point, then Pinckney
from South Carolina got afraid of this. After this debate they decided to argue
about the number of representatives into lower house and upper house. That
started the problem of the number each state should have. The big ones said
population and the small ones equal. Out of all this a guy named Katterson
made up the New Jersey plan. It was that one vote for each state. This starts
The Great Compromise which gives the house representatives the population
and the senate two per each state. The Three-Fifths compromise which was
about slaves. The North didn't agree and the South did, so they just made
blacks 3/5 of a slave and that made them both happy. Then it was time to start
writing, they did the first draft which took two months to peer edit. After the
final draft was completed only thirty nine out of the fifty delegates were left,
this remaining ones signed.

When the citizens heard this they got very shocked and formed parties like
federalist and anti federalists. The delegates wanted to destroy the state rights,
but people said that would be like a monarchy and they were sick of
monarchies. Finally after a long time the Constitution was completed and the
Constitutional Convention ended. This change helped the United States become
the nation they are now.